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Heart Disease , Symptoms and Treatment

CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE



Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the most common type of heart disease.CAD happens when the arteries that supply blood to heart muscle become hardened and narrowed. This is due to the buildup of cholesterol and other material, called plaque,on their inner walls. This buildup is called atherosclerosis. 
As it grows, less blood can flow through the arteries. As a result, the heart muscle can't get the blood or oxygen it needs. This can lead to chest pain (angina) or a heart attack. Most heart attacks happen when a blood clot suddenly cuts off the hearts' blood supply, causing permanent heart damage.
Over time, CAD can also weaken the heart muscle and contribute to heart failure and arrhythmias. (Heart failure means the heart can't pump blood well to the rest of the body). Arrhythmias are changes in the normal beating rhythm of the heart)

SYMPTOMS
Some people who have CHD have no signs or symptoms—a condition called silent CHD.The disease might not be diagnosed until a person has signs or symptoms of a heart attack,heart failure,or an arrhythmia 

TREATMENT
Treatments for coronary heart disease include heart-healthy lifestyle changes, medicines, medical procedures and surgery, and cardiac rehabilitation. Treatment may include:
•Lowering the risk of blood clots forming (blood clots can cause a heart attack)
•Preventing complications of coronary heart disease
•Reducing risk factors in an effort to slow, stop, or reverse the buildup of plaque
•Relieving symptoms
•Widening or bypassing clogged arteries

CARDIAC ARREST

Cardiac arrest(CA)is a condition in which the heart suddenly and unexpectedly stops beating. If this happens, blood stops flowing to the brain and other vital organs.
CA usually causes death if it's not treated within minutes.

SYMPTOMS
Usually, the first sign ofcardiac arrest (CA)is loss of consciousness. At the same time, no heartbeat can be felt.
Some people may have a racing heartbeat or feel dizzy or light-headed just before they faint. Within an hour before CA, some people have chest pain, shortness of breath, nausea (feeling sick to the stomach), or vomiting

TREATMENT
Cardiac arrest(CA)is an emergency. A person having CA needs to be treated with a defibrillator right away. This device sends an electric shock to the heart. The electric shock can restore a normal rhythm to a heart that's stopped beating.

ARRHYTHMIA


An arrhythmia describes an irregular heartbeat - the heart may beat too fast (tachycardia), too slowly (bradycardia), too early (premature contraction), or irregularly (fibrillation).

Symptoms of tachycardia
(Sometimes there are no symptoms)
a).Breathlessness
b).Dizziness
c).Syncope (fainting, or nearly fainting)
d).Fluttering in the chest
e).Lightheadedness
f).Sudden weakness

Symptoms of bradycardia
(Sometimes there are no symptoms)
a).Angina (chest pain)
b).Trouble concentrating
c).Confusion
d).Difficulties when exercising
e).Dizziness
f).Fatigue (tiredness)
g).Lightheadedness
h).Palpitations
i).Shortness of breath
j).Syncope (fainting or nearly fainting)

Symptoms of atrial fibrillation
a).Angina (chest pain)
b).Breathlessness
c).Dizziness
d).Palpitations
e).Syncope (fainting, or nearly fainting)
f).Weakness

TREATMENT
a).Cardioversion-the doctor may use an electric shock or medication to reset the heart to its regular rhythm
b).Ventricular aneurysm surgery-sometimes, an aneurysm (bulge) in a blood vessel that leads to the heart causes an arrhythmia. If other treatments do not work, a surgeon may remove the aneurysm.
c).Coronary bypass surgery-arteries or veins from elsewhere in the patient's body are grafted to the coronary arteries to bypass any regions that have become narrow, and improve the blood supply to the heart muscle (myocardium).

HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE


High blood pressure is also known as hypertension.Blood pressure is the amount of force exerted against the walls of the arteries as blood flows through them

SYMPTOMS
High blood pressure symptoms typically include:
a).Headache - usually, this will last for several days.
b).Nausea - a sensation of unease and discomfort in the stomach with an urge to vomit.
c).Vomiting - less common than just nausea.
d).Dizziness - Lightheadedness, unsteadiness, and vertigo.
e).Blurred or double vision (diplopia).
f).Epistaxis - nosebleeds.
g).Palpitations - disagreeable sensations of irregular and/or forceful beating of the heart.
h).Dyspnea - breathlessness, shortness of breath.

TREATMENT
a).Regular Exercise
b).Eat healthy
c).Regular Exercise
d).Consult your doctor in severe condition

STROKE

Strokes occur due to problems with the blood supply to the brain: either the blood supply is blocked or a blood vessel within the brain ruptures, causing brain tissue to die.

SYMPTOMS
a).Confusion, including trouble with speaking and understanding
b).Headache, possibly with altered consciousness or vomiting
c).Numbness of the face, arm or leg, particularly on one side of the body
c).Trouble with seeing, in one or both eyes
d).Trouble with walking, including dizziness and lack of co-ordination.

TREATMENT
Strokes are life-changing events that can affect a person both physically and emotionally, temporarily or permanently. After a stroke, successful recovery will often involve specific rehabilitative activities such as:

a).Speech therapy - to help with problems producing or understanding speech. Practice, relaxation and changing communication style, using gestures or different tones 
b).Physical therapy - to help a person relearn movement and co-ordination. It is important to get out and about, even if it is difficult at first
c).Occupational therapy - to help a person to improve their ability to carry out routine daily activities, such as bathing, cooking, dressing, eating, reading and writing
d).Joining a support group - to help with common mental health problems such as depression that can occur after a stroke. Many find it useful to share common experiences and exchange information