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Important Points to be remembered for BIOLOGY

DiseaseCausative organism
TBMycobacterium Tuberculosis
MumpsParamyxo virus
MeaslesMyxo virus
Common coldRhino virus
InfluenzaOrthomixo Virus
Rabies or (Hydrophobia)Rhabdo virus
Sleeping SicknessTrypanosoma brucei
Kala-Azar (blood lessness)    protozoa parasite
FilariaFilaria worm
CholeraVibro cholerae
TyphoidTyphoid bacillus

Deficiency Diseases

DiseasesDeficiency
Beri BeriVitamin B
ScurvyVitamin C
RicketsVitamin D
Simple Goitre    Iodine


Nitrobactor, Nitrosomonas converts (Amonia) NH3 into Nitrates & Nitrates
Rhizobium, Azotobacter bacteria can fix atmospheric nitrogen into Ammonia. This process is known as Nitrogen fixation.
Archaebacteria can live without oxygen , High Salt Condition , High Temperature 80oC and High acidic soil.

All Unicellular plants are called Phytoplanktons
All unicellular animals are called Zooplanktons

1nm = 10-9m (OR) 1 meter = 109nm

Virus that infects bacteria are called Bacteriaphage

Diseases caused by bacteria in plants

HostDiseasePathogens
Citrus      Citrus CankerXanthomonas Citri
RiceBacterial BlightXanthomonas Oryzae
CottonAngular leaf spotXanthomonas Malvacearum
PearsFire blight Solenacearum   Pseudomonas
CarrotSoftrotErwinia Carratovora

Diseases caused by bacteria in animals

HostDiseasePathogens
SheepAnthrraxBacillus anthracis
CattleBrucellosis   Brucella abortus
Sheep, Goat  BrucellosisBrucella melitensis



Diseases caused by bacteria in Human Beings

CholeraVibrio Cholerae
TyphoidSalmonilla Typhi
TBMycobacterium tuberculous
Common cold  Rhino virus

Bacteria Acetobacter aceti is used to create vinegar from alcohol

Antibiotics from bacteria

Bacitracin ( Bacillus subtilus )
Polymyxin( Bacillus Plymixa )
Streptomycin  ( Streptomyus griseus )
Bacteria Escherichia Coli ( E. Coli ) lives in human intestine and produces Vitamin K and Vitamin B-Complex.

Phycology ( or ) Algology  - Study of Algae
Mycology  - Study of Fungi

In Fungi storage product is glycogen and oil.

Virus :-   ( Termed by M . W . Beijenck )
All Virus are nucleoprotein particles, it has Either DNA or RNA, never both.

VIROIDS : - A pathogenic much smaller than virus, It has a small circular RNA molecule without a Protein.coat.

PRIONS :- Extremely small particle, exclusively protein without a nucleic acid.

Plantae Kingdom

Plantae :- Its a multicellular organism with rigid cell wall. Nutrition mostly Photosynthetic, but few species absorptive ( Saprophytes or Parasites )

Anthophyta ( known as angiosperms) are flowering plants
Division Anthophyta is classified into two classes Monocotyledones and Dicotyledones





Animalia



Cell

Cell :- A typical cell consisting of a mass of cytoplasm, having  the centre nucleus and semi - permeable covering called plasma membrane.
number of cells performing the same function forms the tissue
An organ is formed by the combination of simple or complex tissue. Number of organs forms a system.


ALGAE

Chlorophyll Present
Storage Products - Carbohydrates
Reproduction - Vegetative, Asexual & Sexual

Lichens: A symbiotic plant - Blue green algae and fungi together

Except Cyanophyceae other classes of algae are eukaryotic in nature

Usage of Algae

Chlorellas and Spirulina rich protein source.
Chlorella source of vitamin A, B & C used as food for astronauts


Pollination :- Transfer of pollens from anther to stigma


Pollination affected by


  • Wind     - Anemophily
  • Insects   - Entomophily
  • Water    - Hydrophily
  • Animals - Zoophily
  • Snails    - Malacophily
  • Birds     - Ornithogamy

Germination : The process by which the dormant embryo (with in the seed) wakes up.

Transpiration :- Loss of excess water by plant in the form of vapour.

Guttation :- Loss of water in the form of water, mainly take place during night. water which comes out contains dissolved minerals.

Rate of photosynthesis is highest in red light and lowest in green light.

Hormones found in Plants
Auxins:- Growth promoting substance
Gibberelline :- It helps in the elongation (as auxin) helps flowering, breaking of dormancy of the seed.

VERNALIZATION :-
It is a treatment given to seeds before sowing to hasten the time of flowering of plants that will develop from them.
Benefits: Induce earlier flowering and earlier maturing of the crop to escape drought, flood and forst.

Photoperiodism : is a response of plants flowering to the timing of light and darkness

Artificial vegetative Propogation

  • Cutting
  • Grafting
  • Budding
  • Tissue Culture
What is Haldane effect ?

The Haldane effect is a property of hemoglobin. 
Haldane effect was first described by John Scott Haldane

Oxygenation of blood in the lungs displaces carbon dioxide from hemoglobin which increases the removal of carbon dioxide. This property is the Haldane effect. Conversely, oxygenated blood has a reduced affinity for carbon dioxide.