Header Ads




Secreted by


Insulin(alpha cells)The pancreasRelease is  stimulated by elevated glucose levelsDecreases blood sugar levels by converting glycogen or fat for storage.
Glucagon (beta cells)stimulates increases in blood sugar levels in the bloodconverts fats to Glycogen (opposite of  the action of insulin)
MelatoninPineal glandtargets the brain to control circadian rhythms and circannual rhythmsmay be involved in maturation of sex organs
Somatostatin  HypothalamusGrowth Inhibiting hormone
Dopamine(Prolactin-inhibiting hormone)Inhibit prolactin released from anterior pituitary
CalcitoninThe thyroid glandDecreases the blood calcium levels by stimulating calcium deposit in the bones.(antagonist of the parathyroid hormone)
Thyroxin  regulates metabolism by controlling the rate of oxidation in cells
Parathyroid hormoneThe Parathyroid GlandStimulates Calcium ion release from bone, thereby increasing blood CalciumStimulates Calcium ion reabsorption in kidney
Stimulates activated vitamin D production in kidney
Stimulates Phosphate release from bones, thereby increasing blood Phosphate.
OxytosinThe posterior pituitary gland Promotion of uterine contractility and stimulation of Lactation.
Vasopressin(antidiuretic hormone)Increases water permeability in the distal convoluted tubule and collecting duct of nephrons, thus promoting water reabsorption and increasing blood volume
Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)The Anterior Pituitary GlandIn females: Stimulates maturation of ovarian follicles in ovaryIn males: Stimulates maturation of seminiferous tubules
In males: Stimulates spermatogenesis
In males: Stimulates production of androgen-binding protein from Sertoli cells of the testes
Growth hormone(somatotropin)Stimulates growth and cell reproductionStimulates Insulin-like growth factor 1 release from liver
Prolactin  Stimulates milk synthesis and release from mammary glandsMediates sexual gratification
Thyrotropin (Thyroid Stimulating Hormone. TSH)Stimulates thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) synthesis and release from thyroid glandStimulates iodine absorption by thyroid gland.
Glucocorticoids (chiefly cortisol)Adrenal cortex (Adrenal Gland)Stimulates gluconeogenesisStimulates fat breakdown in adipose tissue
Inhibits protein synthesis
Inhibits glucose uptake in muscle and adipose tissue
Inhibits immunological responses (immunosuppressive)
Inhibits inflammatory responses (anti-inflammatory)
Mineralocorticoids (chiefly aldosterone)Stimulates active sodium reabsorption in kidneysStimulates passive water reabsorption in kidneys, thus increasing blood volume and blood pressure
Stimulates potassium and H+ secretion into nephron of kidney and subsequent excretion
Androgens (including DHEA and testosterone)In males: Relatively small effect compared to androgens from testesIn females: masculinizing effects
Adrenaline (epinephrine)Adrenal medulla (Adrenal Gland)Fight-or-flight response:Boost the supply of oxygen and glucose to the brain and muscles (by increasing heart rate and stroke volume, vasodilation, increasing catalysis of glycogen in liver, breakdown of lipids in fat cells)
Dilate the pupils
Suppress non-emergency bodily processes (e.g. digestion)
Noradrenaline (norepinephrine)Fight-or-flight response:Boost the supply of oxygen and glucose to the brain and muscles (by increasing heart rate and stroke volume, vasoconstriction and increased blood pressure, breakdown of lipids in fat cells)
Increase skeletal muscle readiness.
Androgens (chiefly testosterone) (Gonadal hormones) TestesGrowth of muscle mass and strength, increased bone density, growth and strength,Maturation of sex organs, formation of scrotum, deepening of voice, growth of beard and auxiliary hair.
Progesterone (Gonadal hormones) Ovarian follicle and corpus luteum Convert endometrium to secretory stageInhibit immune response, e.g., towards the human embryo
Decrease uterine smooth muscle contractility[6]
Inhibit lactation
Inhibit onset of labor.
Assist in thyroid function and bone growth by osteoblasts
Increase resilience in bone, teeth, gums, joint, tendon, ligament, and skin
Promote healing by regulating collagen.
Prevent endometrial cancer by regulating effects of estrogen
EstrogensPromote formation of female secondary sex characteristicsAccelerate height growth
Accelerate metabolism (burn fat)
Reduce muscle mass
Stimulate endometrial growth
Increase uterine growth
Increase platelet adhesiveness
Increase HDL, triglyceride, height growth
Decrease LDL, fat deposition
Regulate salt (sodium) and water retention
ProgesteronePlacenta Inhibit immune response, towards the fetus.Decrease uterine smooth muscle contractility
Inhibit lactation
Inhibit onset of labor.
Support fetal production of adrenal mineralo- and glucosteroids.
Human chorionic Gonadotropin (HCG)Promote maintenance of corpus luteum during beginning of pregnancyInhibit immune response, towards the human embryo.