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Biology tip2


  • Organic compound required in small amounts in the die to maintain normal metabolic functions are known as 'Vitamins'.
  • The term vitamine was changed to vitamin when it was realized that not all vitamins are amines.
  • Many vitamins act as (or) are converted into coenzymes; they neither provide energy nor are incorporated into tissues.
  • These also regulate the Bio-chemical processes in the body.
Vitamins are classified into two groups
  1. Fat soluble vitamins (A, D, E, K). These are rich in liver cells.
  2. Water soluble vitamins (C, B-complex). These are present in much smaller amounts in cells.

Fat soluble vitamins:

Vitamin A:
  • Vitamin A is also known as 'Retinol'.
  • Deficiency diseases: Night blindness, redness in eyes (Exophthalmia), degeneration of lachrymal glands.
Vitamin D:
  • Vitamin D is also known as 'Calciferol'.
  • Deficiency diseases: Rickets in children, Osteomalacia in adults.
Vitamin E:
  • Vitamin E is also known as 'Tocopherol'.
  • Deficiency diseases: Sterility nutritional nuclear dystrophy, neurosis of heart muscles.
Vitamin K:
  • Vitamin K is also known as 'Anti hemorrhagic'.
  • Deficiency diseases: Blood coagulation is prevented, continuous bleeding occurs.

Water soluble vitamins:

Vitamin 'B Complex': Vitamin B Complex is a mixture of B1, B2, B3, B5, B6, B7, B9, and B12.
 Vitamin B1:
  • Vitamin B1 is also known as Thiamin.
  • Deficiency diseases: Beri Beri disease which affects the legs.
Vitamin B2:
  • Vitamin B2 is also known as Riboflavin.
  • Deficiency diseases: Dark red tongue, dermatitis, cheilosis occurs at the corners of mouth & lips.
Vitamin B3:
  • Vitamin B3 is also known as Pentothenic acid.
  • Deficiency diseases: Burning sensations of feet.
Vitamin B5:
  • Vitamin B5 is also known as Nicotinic acid/Niacin.
  • Deficiency diseases: Pellagra, dermatitis, diarrhea.
Vitamin B6:
  • Vitamin B6 is also known as Pyridoxine.
  • Deficiency diseases: Dermatitis and convulsions.
Vitamin B7:
  • Vitamin B7 is also known as Biotin (also considered as vitamin H).
  • Deficiency diseases: Dermatitis, blood cholesterol increases, loss of hair and paralysis.
Vitamin B9:
  • Vitamin B9 is also known as Folic acid.
  • Deficiency diseases: Anemia, inflammation of tongue, gastro intestinal disorders.
Vitamin B12:
  • Vitamin B12 is also known as 'Cynocobal amine'.
  • Deficiency diseases: Pernicious anemia, hyperglycemia.
Vitamin C:
  • Vitamin C is also known as 'Ascorbic acid'.
  • Deficiency diseases: Scurvy, delay in wound healing.
Human Diseases Caused by Fungi :-
  • Ringworm caused by Microsporum, Trichophyton by direct contact from unbathed cats and dogs or objects handled by infected individuals.
  • Athlete's foot caused by Trichophyton by Bad foot hygiene where skin remains warm and moist for long period, fungi finds optimal condition, invade dead outer layer of skin.
Human Diseases Caused by Viruses ­
  • Smallpox caused by Variola Virus by direct contact (droplets), indirected by
  • infected articles.
  • Chicken pox caused by Varicella virus by direct contact (droplets) indirected
  • by infected objects.
  • Common cold caused by Rhinovirus by contact.
  • Influenza/Flu caused by Orthomixo­virus by contact (droplets) virus transmitted through discharge from respiratory tracts of persons infected with disease
  • Mumps caused by Mumps virus by direct contact, virus in Saliva and secretion of nose invades salivary glands.
  • Viral encephalitis caused by Encephalitis virus (arbovirus) by some domestic animals reservoir of virus, transmitted by mosquito bite to man.
  • Poliomyelitis caused by Poliovirus by contact, houseflies, fleas, food and water.
  • Rabies (Hydrophobia) caused by Rabies virus (Rhabdovirus) by Bite a mad
  • (rabid) dog
  • Dengue fever or breakbone fever caused by Dengue virus (arbovirus) by Mosquito (Aedes) bite.
  • Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) caused by Human T­cell
  • Lenkemia virus (HTLV­IlI) also called LAV (Retrovirus) by blood and sperm among homosexuals, heterosexuals, intravenous drug users, haemophiliacs, promiscuous individuals and prostitutes.
Human Diseases Caused by Bacteria
  • Septic sore throat caused by Streptococcus Sp by Bacteria infect throat and nasal membranes by droplets and direct contact.
  • Diphtheria caused by Irregular rod (Corynebacterium diphtheria) by Bacteria infect respiratory tract by carrier, through contact, droplets and food items.
  • Pneumonia caused by Diplococcus pneumonia by Bacteria transmitted to respiratory tract, including the lungs by droplet infection.
  • Tuberculosis caused by Irregular rod (Mycobacterium tuberculosis) by Bacteria transmitted to lungs, bones and other organs by direct contact droplet infection, food and milk.
  • Plague or Bubonic caused by Short rod (Yersinia pestis) by Rat flea spreads disease from rat to man.
  • Tetanus or Lock­Jaw caused by Clostridium tetani by Bacteria in soil, enter through wound.
  • Typhoid or enteric fever caused by, Salmonella typhi by Flies, food, faces water and carriers.
  • Cholera caused by Vibrio cholerae by Flies food, stools, water and carriers.
  • Bacillary dysentery caused by short rod (Shigella dysenteriae)by Flies, food, faeces, water and carriers.
  • Whooping cough caused by small short rod (Hemophilus pertussis) by Droplets protected during coughing and sneezing.
  • Syphilis caused by Spiral­shaped organism (Treponema pallidam) by direct contact, chiefly sexual intercourse.
  • Leprosy caused by Mycobacterium Leprae by long and close contact with infected persons
  • Botulism caused by Clostridium botulinum by organism produces poison in food.
Human Diseases Caused by Protozoans
  • Amoebic dysentery (Amoebiasis) caused by Entamoeba histolytica by Transmission from man to man through ingestion of cysts in drinking water vegetables and food contaminated with faeces.
  • Diarrhea 'Giardiasis' caused by Giardia intestinalis by Transmission from man to man through ingestion of cysts in drinking water vegetables and food contaminated with faces.
  • Malaria caused by Plasmodium vivax by Transmitted to man by bite of an infected female auophelise mosquito.
  • Sleeping sickness (Trypanosomiasis) caused by Trypanosoma brucei by Transmitted by bite of tse­tse fly