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Polymers & Chemical used in Medicine

Polymer:

  • Polymers are large complex molecule that are made of some small repeating unit known as monomers.
  • Monomers are the building block of polymers.
  • Polymers can be natural and synthetic depends on its origin, e.g. Cellulose is a natural polymers and polythene is a synthetic or man made polymers.
  • The process of formation of polymers from respective monomers is known as polymerization.
Some important polymers are as follows:
Polythene: Monomers of polythene is ethylene and it is used in the manufacturing of packaging material ,carry bags and bottles.
Polypropene: Its monomers is propylene and it is used in the manufacturing of bottles and crates.
Nylon (Polyester): Monomer of Nylon is caprolactam and this is used in the manufacturing of fibers and ropes.
Polyvinyl chloride (PVC): Monomers of polyvinyl chloride is vinyl chloride and it is used in the manufacturing of pipes and insulation.
Teflon: Tetrafluroethylene is used as monomers in preparation of Teflon. Teflon is used in the preparation of nonstick kitchen ware.
Bakelite: Its monomer is phenol formaldehyde and it is used in the preparation of electrical insulation.
Natural rubber: Its monomer is isoprene.
Lexan: It is used in the preparation of bullet proof glass.
Melamine: It is used in the preparation of crockery.

Soaps:

  • Soap is a sodium salt or potassium salt of long chain fatty acids having cleansing action in water.
  • They are using as cleansing agents to remove dirt, oil from the skin and clothes.
  • Generally soaps are prepared by heating animal fat or oil with alkalies like sodium hydroxide or potassium hydroxide,this reaction is known as saponification reaction.
  • Glycerol is by -product formed in the saponification reaction and it is used in the preparation of cosmetics, paints and even explosives.
  • The cleaning action of soap is due to micelle formation and emulsion formation.
Detergents:
  • Detergents have almost the same properties as soaps but they are more effective in hard water.
  • Detergents are generally ammonium or sulphonate salts of long chain carboxylic acids.
  • The charged ends of these compounds do not form insoluble precipitates with the calcium and magnesium ions in water.

Various types medicine:

Analgesics: Painkillers are called analgesics e.g. Aspirin, paracetamol and morphine. Acetyl salicylic acid is used in the preparation of aspirin.
Antimalarial Drugs: These drugs are used to treat malaria.
Suphadrugs: Alternatives of antibiotics, sulphanilamide, sulphadiazine, sulpha gunamidine.
Antaoxide: Substance which remove the excess acid and raise the pH to appropriate level in scotch are called antacids. It is caused by excess of HCL in the gastric juice magnesium hydrate. Aluminium phophene are common antacids.
Epsom salt: Hydrated magnesium sulphaate used in medicines to empty bowels.
Chlorofrom: A sweedish, colourless liquid and it is used as anaesthetic.
Saccharin: It i s used by Diabitic patients in place of sugar.
DDT: It is used as an insecticide.