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Hydrogen Derivatives of Hydrocarbons

Ethyl bromide:
  • It is colourless and used as a local anaesthetic and in organic synthesis.
Chloroform (CHCL3):
  • Discovered by Leibig, used as the anaesthetic in surgery.
  • Always stored in the dark coloured bottle as it get oxidised with the sunlight and form a poisonous gas known as Phosgene.
  • It reacts with concentrated HNO3 to form Chloropicrin, a poisonous gas used in the war.
Carbon tetrachloride (CCL4):
  • Used as an fire extinguisher, used as an solvent for the fats, oils in the industry.
Freon:
  • The chlorofluorocarbon compounds of methane and ethane are collectively known as Freon.
  • They are produced by the refrigerator, A.C and propellants.
  • They causes the depletion of Ozone.
Dichloro diphenyl trichloro ethane (DDT):
  • Discovered by Paul Muller and it is used as an insecticide, widely used against the mosquito and lice.
  • It is highly stable and is not decomposed easily in the environment that why it is banned in several country.
P-dichloro benzene:
  • Used as insecticide, germicide and in deodorant and moth repellent.
Perfluro carbons (PFC):
  • Used as an electric insulator, lubricants, dielectric, heat transfer media in high voltage.
ALCOHOLS
Methyl alcohol (CH3OH):
  • known as wood spirit or wood naptha.
  • Used for the denaturing of alcohol (methylatd spirit is denatured ethyl alcohol).
  • Used as alcohol-petrol fuel, automobile antifreeze mixtures and in the manufacturing of drugs, dyes and perfumes etc.
Ethyl alcohols (C2H5OH):
  • Known as alcohol, spirit of wine or grain alcohol.
  • Used as solvent in paint industry.
Ethylene glycol:
  • Used as a antifreeze in automobile radiator and as a cooling agent in aeroplanes instead of water.
  • Its dinitrate is used as an explosive with trinitroglycerine.
Glycerol
  • Present in almost all the animal and vegetable oil and fats as glycerides.
  • It is hygroscopic in nature and used in the manufacturing of the cosmetic and transparent soaps, as a lubricant for watches and clocks.
Phenol (C6H5OH):
  • Commonly known as carbolic acid or benzenol and prepared by the middle oil fraction of Coal Tar.
  • Used in the preparation of drugs such as salol, aspirin, salicylic acid and phenacetin.

ALDEHYDES

Formaldehydes (HCHO)
  • Its 40% dilute solution is known as formalin, used as insecticide, germicide and preservative for biological specimen.
  • Used in leather industry for tanning and in manufacturing of synthetic dyes and Bakelite.
Acetaldehyde (CH3CHO)
  • Used in the silvering of mirror and in the manufacturing of paraldehyde and metaldehyde.
  • Chloral or Trichloro acetaldehyde
  • Used as an sleep producing drugs and as a powerful stimulant
Acrolein or Acraldehyde
  • Used in tear gas and as warming agent to find out leakage if any of methyl chloride.

KETONES

Acetone or Dimethyl ketone (CH3COCH3)
  • It is the fist member of keton series
  • . It Is one of the constituent of the nail polish.
  • Chloretone used as a medicine is obtained by the reaction of acetone with chlorofoem in the presence of potassium hydroxide.

CARBOXYLIC ACID

Formic acid (HCOOH)
  • Found in red ants, in the strings of bees and wasps.
  • It is corrosive and produces blisters on the skin.
  • Used in the preparation of fruits and as a medicine for the treatment of the Gout.
Acetic acid
  • Dilute acetic acid is used as vinegar and concentrated acid is used as solvent.
  • Prepared by the fermentation process
Oxalic Acid
  • It is used to remove ink stains from the cloth.
  • Its salt potassium ferrous oxalate is used in the photography.
  • It occurs in rhubarb, sorrel and other plant of oxalic acid group in the form of potassium salts.
Lactic Acid
  • It is a monohydroxy acid, present in milk
  • When we do vigorous physical activity lactic acid is produced which causes pain in muscles.
Tartaric Acid
  • It occurs in grapes, tamarind and berries.
  • Used in in dyeing industry and making baking powders.
  • Rochelle salt(sodium potassium tartrate) is used in the preparation of Fehling solution.
Citric Acid
  • In Free states it is found in citrus fruit such as lemon, lime, orange and galgal.
  • Used in making beverages and as a mordant in dying and calico –printing.
Salicylic Acid
  • It is poisonous and has antiseptic property.
  • Used in the azo dyes and aspirin preparation
Acetoacetic Acid
  • It is a colourless liquid, on decomposition it gives acetone and CO2.
  • It occurs in excess in urine of diabetic patients.

NITRO COMPOUNDS

Nitrobenzene
  • It is a pale yellow oily liquid with a strong smell of bitter almonds.
  • It is also known as oil of mirbane.
  • Used in the preparation of aniline, benzidine, 1, 3, 5-trinitro benzene and azodyes.
1, 3, 5-trinitrobenzene or TNB
  • It has greater explosive power than TNT and is used in making explosives.
Trinitrotoluene (TNT)
  • It is a pale yellow crystalline solid prepared by nitrating toluene with fluming nitric acid and fuming sulphuric acid mixture.
  • Used as an explosive in bombs, shells and torpedo.