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Constitution of India

Constitution of India

The Constitution of India is the supreme law of India.
It lays down the framework defining fundamental political principles, establishes the structure, procedures, powers and duties of government institutions and sets out fundamental rights, directive principles and the duties of citizens.
It is the longest written constitution of any sovereign country in the world.The nation is governed by it.
B. R. Ambedkar is regarded as its chief architect.
It was adopted by the Constituent Assembly on 26 November 1949, and came into effect on 26 January 1950.
With its adoption, the Union of India became the modern and contemporary Republic of India replacing the Government of India Act, 1935 as the country’s fundamental governing document. India celebrates its coming into force on 26 January each year, as Republic Day.

What are Schedules?

Schedules are lists in the Constitution of India that categorizes and tabulate bureaucratic activities and policy of the Government. Indian Constitution had originally eight schedules.
The 9th schedule was added via First Amendment Act, while 10th Schedule was first added by 35th Amendment {Sikkim as Associate State}.
Once Sikkim became a state of India, the 10 Schedule was repealed but later added once again by 52th Amendment Act, 1985 in context with the “Anti-defection” law. Here is a brief description of the schedules of Indian Constitution
The Indian constitution is the world's longest. At its commencement, it had 395 articles in 22 parts and 8 schedules. It is made up of almost 80,000 words.
In its current form (September 2012), it has a preamble, 25 parts with 448 articles, 12 schedules, 5 appendices and 101 amendments, the latest of which came into force on 8 September 2016.

Parts

The individual articles of the constitution are grouped together into the following parts
Preamble
with the words "socialist" and "secular" added to it in 1976 by the 42nd constitutional amendment .
Part I– Union and its Territory
Part II – Citizenship.
Part III – Fundamental Rights
Part IV– Directive Principles of State Policy
Part IVA – Fundamental Duties
Part V – The Union
Part VI – The States
Part VII– States in the B part of the First schedule (repealed)
Part VIII– The Union Territories
Part IX – The Panchayats
Part IXA – The Municipalities
Part IXB – The Co-operative Societies.
Part X – The scheduled and Tribal Areas
Part XI – Relations between the Union and the States
Part XII – Finance, Property, Contracts and Suits
Part XIII – Trade and Commerce within the territory of India
Part XIV – Services Under the Union, the States
Part XIVA – Tribunals
Part XV – Elections
Part XVI – Special Provisions Relating to certain Classes
Part XVII – Languages
Part XVIII – Emergency Provisions
Part XIX – Miscellaneous
Part XX – Amendment of the Constitution
Part XXI – Temporary, Transitional and Special Provisions
Part XXII – Short title, date of commencement, Authoritative text in Hindi and Repeals.

Schedules

Schedules are lists in the Constitution that categorise and tabulate bureaucratic activity and policy of the Government.
  • First Schedule (Articles 1 and 4) – This lists the states and territories of India, lists any changes to their borders and the laws used to make that change.
  • Second Schedule (Articles 59(3), 65(3), 75(6), 97, 125, 148(3), 158(3), 164(5), 186 and 221)- – This lists the salaries of officials holding public office, judges, and Comptroller and Auditor General of India.
  • Third Schedule (Articles 75(4), 99, 124(6), 148(2), 164(3), 188 and 219)—Forms of Oaths – This lists the oaths of offices for elected officials and judges.
  • Fourth Schedule (Articles 4(1) and 80(2)) – This details the allocation of seats in the Rajya Sabha (the upper house of Parliament) per State or Union Territory.
  • Fifth Schedule (Article 244(1)) – This provides for the administration and control of Scheduled Areas and Scheduled Tribes (areas and tribes needing special protection due to disadvantageous conditions).
  • Sixth Schedule (Articles 244(2) and 275(1))— Provisions made for the administration of tribal areas in Assam, Meghalaya, Tripura, and Mizoram.
  • Seventh Schedule (Article 246) —The union (central government), state, and concurrent lists of responsibilities.
  • Eighth Schedule (Articles 344(1) and 351)—The official languages.
  • Ninth Schedule (Article 31-B) – Validation of certain Acts and Regulations.
  • Tenth Schedule (Articles 102(2) and 191(2))—"Anti-defection" provisions for Members of Parliament and Members of the State Legislatures.
  • Eleventh Schedule (Article 243-G) —Panchayat Raj (rural local government),
  • Twelfth Schedule (Article 243-W) — Municipalities (urban local government).

Appendices

  • Appendix I—The Constitution (Application to Jammu and Kashmir) Order, 1954.
  • Appendix II— Re-statement, with reference to the present text of the Constitution, of the exceptions and modifications subject to which the Constitution applies to the State of Jammu and Kashmir.
  • Appendix III—Extracts from the Constitution (Forty-fourth Amendment) Act, 1978.
  • Appendix IV—The Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act, 2002.
  • Appendix V— The Constitution (Eighty-eighth Amendment) Act, 2003.